Bubalus bubalis

Asian Water Buffalo

This big herbivore belongs to the bovine family. They love water, spending much of their day diving into the muddy waters to cool off and also to prevent mosquito bites. They are very social animals.

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Height 2,50m
Weight 1500Kg
Lifespan 29 years
Diet Grasses, fruits, bark and aquatic plants
Habitat Riparian areas, meadows and low forests
Reproduction 1 cub
IUCN Red List Status
Not evaluated
Data deficient
Least concern
Near threatened
Critically endangered

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This species is domestic and is used as livestock. The face is long and narrow, with rather small ears and horns. The horns are 2 meters long, both. The legs are large and long with flexible joints adapted to walk on muddy surfaces. Aquatic Buffalos are animals that have almost no hair and their body color varies from dark grey to dark brown and black.



Asian Water Buffalos are sociable animals and live in groups of up to 30 individuals. During the day they usually rub in the mud, sleep on the grass in shady areas or submerge themselves in water with only their nostrils and eyes exposed. The mud on the skin protects them from heat and insects. They live in wide territory preferring dense forest zones during the day to graze. The gestation period is 324 days, which is the longest for the cattle. Usually, one child is born and rarely two, and they are born with 35-40kg and are red to yellowish-brown.



Domestic Water Buffalo is not threatened or listed on CITES. The Asian Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, has been heavily domesticated and is therefore now widespread. Their native area was from Central India in the south of Nepal in the west, to Vietnam and Malaysia in the east.
In general, bovine horns are effective deterrents against predators. Tigers are the only other predator for Buffaloes. Humans have been a significant threat to Buffalo, both through hunting and habitat invasion and fragmentation. In contrast, the wild species - Bubalus arnee - is in danger and its native population is less than 4.000 individuals in the wild.

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